Tuesday, 3 April 2012


The circulation of newspaper in some form started as far back as in ancient Rome. Acta Diurna put up daily notices in public places.
However, the circulation of news started in the 16th century with pamphlets and sheets with news for the public and they were passed from person to person.
In the 17th century newspapers were printed in Holland, Germany, Denmark, France, Sweden, Italy and England. The Dutch started to gather international news with 'corantos, current news, translated it into French and English. At that time social news were printed in Japan. The first British newspaper, the Weekly News, appeared in 1822, In America the Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic was put out in 1690. As printing improved the circulation multiplied.

Once the public could read about the matters of Parliament the Government began to censor publication. The freedom of the press was often stopped. This provoked to form a radical underground press and it voiced anti-Establishment views. John Wilkes campaigned for the freedom of the press. and was accused of libel in 1763, when he criticism George II's ministers in the North Briton.
Mid 19th century the competition began for the circulation. Many popular papers appeared in USA and Britain. The paper aimed for entertainment instead political debates, with advertisement bringing the revenue in they were able to keep prices low.
The invention of the telegraph enables the papers to receive news fast and it was first used by W.H Russell of the Times in 1854 with reports of the Crimean War.
A further improvement in printing technology at the end of the century could even produce larger volume. This led in the late 19th century to newspaper empires because they could produce also literature. The owners had considerable power and used it.
The first press British baron, Alfred Harmsworth, Viscount Northcliffe, founded the first newspaper the Daily Mirror in 1903. The real pioneer of journalism was William Randolph Hearst of USA.
In 1970 and 1980 computers came into the production of newspapers. In 1983 the American Wall Street journal published with electronic and satellite transmission newspaper simultaneously. 1986 News Corporation, the world's largest publisher in English-language newspapers used 'cold type' technology. Many print workers lost their jobs.
Circulation war began and the journalists' techniques started to be questionable. Invasion of privacy and the so-called chequebook journalism for illegal activities began. In Britain the Press Complaint Commissions started in 1991 to maintain standards. .Top of Form
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