Tuesday, 18 September 2012

HABSBURG



The Habsburg dynasty reigned from 15th to 20th century over most of Europe. By marriage and conquest it achieve and empire which strechted from Hungary to Peru. In 1600 the Habsburg were at their greatest power.
The name derived from the family seat Habichtsburg (Hawk's Castle) in Switzerland. The family was founded by Albert, Count of Habichtsburg.




HABICHTSBURG
The first of the Habsburg powerful family was Rudolf I, king of the Romans from 1273 to 1291. He conquered Austria and the province Styria which was passed on to two sons in 1282. The Habsburg made their name in history not to declare war and conquer but to marry. Austria became the Habsburg power base in 1278.
In 1438 Albert II was the first Habsburg who became Holy Roman Empire.  Fredrick III and Maximilian I were his successors and secured the family hold on the imperial crown.
 In late 15th century Maximilian I marriage brought the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Burgundy. Maximilian's son Philip gained through marriage Castle, Aragon, and the Spanish New World Possessions.


HABSBURG REGALIA

The Holy Roman Empire was under the control of the Habsburg family. The height of their power was in the 16th century. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who was also Charles I king of Spain. Charles inherited the Holy Roman Empire and the family’s Austrian base in 1519.  Charles was King of Spain, its territories in the New World and Naples, Burgundy and The Netherlands.


CHARLES V
He added Peru, Mexico, Hungary and Bohemia to his vast Empire.
Such great Empires always attract enemies and threats of war to be able to gain some territories for their own countries.  Charles was different to the previous Habsburgs. During his whole reign he was at war.
King Francis I, from France was determined to be become Holy Roman Emperor and was at war most of the time with Charles V. In Spain he had to face troubles because he was born in Burgundy and was to Spaniards a foreigner.  From East the Ottoman Turks tried to conquer Hungary and laid siege to Vienna but was unsuccessfully.  Even within the empire he had trouble. At that time the Reformation became established and tried to get hold of more power.  Charles V was a Roman Catholic and defender of it.  In 1555 he was forced to a partial defeat and had to give religious tolerance to the Protestant prince at the Peace of Augsburg.
As the years went on Charles realise it was too much for one man and let his younger brother Ferdinand rule the Austria as Empire of Regent.  Charles abdicated in 1556 and went to live in a monastery.  He divided the huge Empire between Ferdinand and his son Philip. 

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After Charles died in 1559, the division became permanent and his brother Ferdinand ruled Germany and Austria. Ferdinand's son Philip II ruled over Spain. During the 30 Year War, from 1618, the Habsburg dynasty lost some power but managed to add Portugal to their empire.
In the 18th century the Austrian Habsburg came to new heights under Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II. Austria lost Netherlands and then the title of Holy Roman Emperor at the end of the Napoleon war.
They survived the revolution in 1848 but after 1866 Austrian-Prussian war Habsburg had to make concession to the Hungarian nationalism. They formed the monarchy Austria-Hungary.


EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEPH 
The emperor Franz Joseph went against Russia because of their control of the Balkan and allied with Germany in 1879. The Nationalists became more and more powerful. The final spark to the more than explosive situation came from Crown Prince and his wife being shot at Sarajevo and the First World War broke out. After the war the empire was broken up.
1918 the last Habsburg monarch Charles I of Austria renounced his title.

PALACE SCHOENBRUNN IN VIENNA - HABSBURG'S FAMILY SEAT




ARCHDUKE OTTO VON HABSBURG -- ELDEST SON OF THE LAST EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA



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